The electric lines of force are purely a geometrical construction, which help us to visualise the nature of electric field in the region. They have the following characteristics:

- The tangent to electric lines of force at any point gives the direction of electric field at the point.

- In free space, they are continuous curves which emerge from positive charge and terminate at negative charge.

- They do not intersect each other, If they do so, then it would mean two directions of electric field at the point of intersection, which is not possible.

- The density of field lines represent strength of electric field in the region.

**Field Lines in Some Cases**

(a) Positive point charge |

Field lines have spherical symmetry |

(b) Negative point charge |

Field lines have spherical symmetry |

(c) Two similar charges of equal magnitude |

(d) Two similar charges of unequal magnitudes |

(e) Two dissimilar charges of equal magnitudes |

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